- Domain = mail1.kandangkuda.com
- MX = mail1.kandangkuda.com.
- Hostname = mail1.kandangkuda.com
- Ip Sesuikan dengan IP publik anda
Saat kemaren saya setting email zimbra setelah usai install dan test server saya mendapatkan error Try again: Unable to connect to the MTA.
Setelah melakukan penelusuran hingga larut malam saya putuskan tidur dulu karena badan dah lemah gemulai. Dan setelah bangun pagi , saya lanjutkan dan ternyata masalahnya domainya tidak bisa query ke dns server, di karenakan di dns server saya pasang firewall config server sebagai aplikasi tambahan untuk cpanel.
Solusinya adalah ip server email saya whitelest dari config server setelah itu saya coba send email dan berjalan lancar.
In this article we will show how to install mod_evasive and mod_security or mod_qos.
These modules protect Apache against DOS,DDOS or brute force attacks on Linux Ubuntu 10.04 or other debian based distributions.
Here is first an description on mod_evasive and mod_security.
What is mod_evasive?
mod_evasive is an evasive maneuvers module for Apache to provide evasive action in the event of an HTTP DoS or DDoS attack or brute force attack. It is also designed to be a detection and network management tool, and can be easily configured to talk to ipchains, firewalls, routers, and etcetera. mod_evasive presently reports abuses via email and syslog facilities.
Detection is performed by creating an internal dynamic hash table of IP Addresses and URIs, and denying any single IP address from any of the following: Continue reading
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ubuntu-mozilla-daily/ppa && sudo apt-get update
Setelah update selesai lanjutkan dengan perintah :
sudo apt-get install firefox-4.0
Selanjutnya untuk membuka bisa dilakukan pada Applications > Internet pada GNOME, atau menggunakan command:
Prigad berkesempatan untuk mensetting internet pada salah satu client , menggunakan speedy sebagi internetnya dan di lewatkan gateway melalui proxy squid. Dengan asusmsi eth0 internet dari modem ke server, eth1 dari server ke client melalui switch Berikut langkah – langkah settingnya.
1. Setting ip :
Setting ip pada interfaces : sudo vim /etc/network/interfaces
auto eth0 iface eth0 inet static address 192.168.1.70 netmask 255.255.255.0 network 192.168.1.0 broadcast 192.168.1.255 gateway 192.168.1.1 # post-up iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.up.rules # dns-* options are implemented by the resolvconf package, if installed # dns-nameservers 184.108.40.206 #post-up iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.up.rules auto eth1 iface eth1 inet static address 192.168.0.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 network 192.168.0.0 broadcast 192.168.0.255 gateway 192.168.1.7
2. Install squid dan setting squid : sudo apt-get install squid
# Squid normally listens to port 3128 http_port 3128 transparent acl our_networks src 192.168.0.0/24 acl localnet src 127.0.0.1/255.255.255.255 http_access allow our_networks http_access allow localnet #Recommended minimum configuration: acl all src all acl manager proto cache_object acl localhost src 127.0.0.1/32 acl to_localhost dst 127.0.0.0/8 0.0.0.0/32 acl our_networks src 192.168.0.0/24 acl localnet src 127.0.0.1/255.255.255.255 #Default: # http_access deny all http_access allow our_networks http_access allow localnet # TAG: access_log # These files log client request activities. Has a line every HTTP or # ICP request. The format is: # access_log <filepath> [<logformat name> [acl acl ...]] # access_log none [acl acl ...]] # # Will log to the specified file using the specified format (which # must be defined in a logformat directive) those entries which match # ALL the acl's specified (which must be defined in acl clauses). # If no acl is specified, all requests will be logged to this file. # # To disable logging of a request use the filepath "none", in which case # a logformat name should not be specified. # # To log the request via syslog specify a filepath of "syslog": # # access_log syslog[:facility.priority] [format [acl1 [acl2 ....]]] # where facility could be any of: # authpriv, daemon, local0 .. local7 or user. # # And priority could be any of: # err, warning, notice, info, debug. access_log /var/log/squid/access.log gateway 192.168.1.7
3. Selanjutnya copy script berikut : sudo vim /etc/fw.proxy
#!/bin/sh # squid server IP SQUID_SERVER="192.168.1.70" # Interface connected to Internet INTERNET="eth0" # Interface connected to LAN LAN_IN="eth1" # Squid port SQUID_PORT="3128" # DO NOT MODIFY BELOW # Clean old firewall iptables -F iptables -X iptables -t nat -F iptables -t nat -X iptables -t mangle -F iptables -t mangle -X # Load IPTABLES modules for NAT and IP conntrack support modprobe ip_conntrack modprobe ip_conntrack_ftp # For win xp ftp client #modprobe ip_nat_ftp echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward # Setting default filter policy iptables -P INPUT DROP iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT #ssh agar server bisa diremote dari ip segmen ini iptables -A INPUT -p TCP -s 220.127.116.11/24 --dport 22 -j ACCEPT # Unlimited access to loop back iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT iptables -A OUTPUT -o lo -j ACCEPT # Allow UDP, DNS and Passive FTP iptables -A INPUT -i $INTERNET -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT # set this system as a router for Rest of LAN iptables --table nat --append POSTROUTING --out-interface $INTERNET -j MASQUERADE iptables --append FORWARD --in-interface $LAN_IN -j ACCEPT # unlimited access to LAN iptables -A INPUT -i $LAN_IN -j ACCEPT iptables -A OUTPUT -o $LAN_IN -j ACCEPT # DNAT port 80 request comming from LAN systems to squid 3128 ($SQUID_PORT) aka transparent proxy iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -i $LAN_IN -p tcp --dport 80 -j DNAT --to $SQUID_SERVER:$SQUID_PORT # if it is same system iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -i $INTERNET -p tcp --dport 80 -j REDIRECT --to-port $SQUID_PORT # DROP everything and Log it iptables -A INPUT -j LOG iptables -A INPUT -j DROP
4. Rubah permisi file tersebut : chmod +x /etc/fw.proxy
5. Masukkan path tersebut ke rc.local : sudo vim /etc/rc.local
#!/bin/sh -e # # rc.local # # This script is executed at the end of each multiuser runlevel. # Make sure that the script will "exit 0" on success or any other # value on error. # # In order to enable or disable this script just change the execution # bits. # # By default this script does nothing. /etc/fw.proxy
6. Lanjutkan dengan mengecek hasil settingan pada log : tail -f /var/log/squid/access.log
sudo apt-get install unrar-free
for a non-free option, you can use:
sudo apt-get install unrar
Task: To open rar (unpack) file in current directory type command:
# unrar e file.rar
Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) provides the ability for one computer to share its Internet connection with another computer. To do this, a computer with an Internet connection must be configured to function as an Internet gateway. A second computer (or network of computers) connects to the Internet indirectly via the gateway computer.
Situations in which ICS may be necessary include:
In order to share an Internet connection, the computer that will do the sharing must have two network cards or ports. This assumes that you are using at least one Ethernet port and that it is identified as "eth0". eth0 will be the port that other computers will connect to you on.
When you are logged in:
A new window will open. Navigate to the tab titled "IPv4 Settings" and change the Method to "Shared to other computers". After restarting the computer you should now be able to plug in any computer into your other Ethernet port or share through your wireless card.
Note: To clarify the above example here is an example configuration that will work – * 1. You are already connected to the internet using your wireless on port wlan0 * 2. The ethernet port eth0 is connected to the PC that needs to share your internet connection (or you could wire eth0 to a router for multiple machines)
You will need two network cards in the gateway computer, or a PPP interface and a network card. One network card (or PPP interface) connects to the internet, we will call this card eth0. The other card connects to your internal network, we will call this eth1. It is also possible to do ICS with a single network card. In this case, use eth0 for the internet and eth0:0 for the internal network.
Internet <<==>> eth0 <> Ubuntu gateway <> eth1 <<==>> Client PC
Internet <<==>> ppp0 <> Ubuntu gateway <> eth1 <<==>> Client PC
Internet <<==>> eth0 <> Ubuntu gateway <> eth0:0 <<==>> Client PC
The following example will focus on the most common gateway setup; an Ubuntu computer with two wired network adapters (eth0 and eth1) hosting ICS to a static internal network configured for the 192.168.0.x subnet.
For this example, eth0 is used to represent the network card connected to the internet and eth1 represents the network card connected to a client PC. You can replace eth0 and eth1 as needed for your situation. Also, any private IP subnet can be used for the internal network IP addresses.
eth0 = the network adapter with internet (external or WAN).
eth1 = the network adapter to which a second computer is attached (internal or LAN).
192.168.0.x = IP subnet for eth1
Your setup may be different. If so, make sure to change them accordingly in the following commands.
Configure your internal network card (eth1) for static IP like so:
sudo ifconfig eth1 192.168.0.1
(The external and internal network cards cannot be on the same subnet)
Configure iptables for NAT translation so packets can be correctly routed through the Ubuntu gateway.
sudo iptables -A FORWARD -i eth0 -o eth1 -s 192.168.0.0/24 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW -j ACCEPT sudo iptables -A FORWARD -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT sudo iptables -A POSTROUTING -t nat -j MASQUERADE
(rule1 allows forwarded packets (initial ones), rule2 allows forwarding of established connection packets (and those related to ones that started), rule3 does the NAT.)
IPtables settings need to be set-up at each boot (they are not saved automatically), with the following commands:
sudo iptables-save | sudo tee /etc/iptables.sav
iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.sav
sudo sh -c "echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward"
The /etc/sysctl.conf edit is required because of following Bug (Hardy and later releases) Launchpad Bug Report
Any OS can connect to the internet as an ICS client as long as networking has been configured correctly. The following example will focus on how to set up an Ubuntu ICS client. For this example, it is assumed that the client is connected to an Ubuntu gateway which has been configured to share ICS on the 192.168.0.x subnet according to the gateway set up outlined above.
For this example, eth0 is the network card on the client which is connected (by crossover cable) to eth1 on the Ubuntu gateway. You can replace eth0 as needed for your situation. Also, any private IP subnet can be used for the internal network IP address, as long as it matches the subnet on the gateway.
sudo /etc/init.d/networking stop
sudo ifconfig eth0 192.168.0.100
This IP address can be anything within the gateway's private IP range.
sudo route add default gw 192.168.0.1
This address should match the IP address on the gateway's internal network card (eth1 in the above example).
sudo cp /etc/resolv.conf /etc/resolv.conf.backup
sudo nano /etc/dhcp3/dhclient.conf
prepend domain-name-servers 18.104.22.168,22.214.171.124;
126.96.36.199 and 188.8.131.52 are OpenDNS DNS servers. If you wish to use your ISP's DNS servers, use them here instead of the OpenDNS servers.
sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart
Once this is finished, your client will now have access to the internet via ICS. Please direct any questions/comments to the Internet Connection Sharing Documentation thread.
A beginner's working example of a Ubuntu Desktop with 2 nic cards, sharing internet connection http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?p=3713684
The above example outlines how to do basic ICS on a static IP network. Once you have configured your Ubuntu computers for ICS and confirmed that everything works across your static network, there are a few advanced routing configurations which can make it much easier to set up the ICS client.
Advanced configurations include DHCP server, and DNS server. A DHCP server allows the client to get an ip address automatically without having to manually configure a static IP. A DNS server allows the client to resolve internet host names without manually configuring DNS addresses.
This is deceptively easy, and will be acceptable for most situations. However, it will not allow the ICS client to see computers on different subnets.
sudo aptitude install dnsmasq
After dnsmasq has been installed, it is automatically started, so it will need to be stopped before changes can be made.
sudo /etc/init.d/dnsmasq stop
sudo cp /etc/dnsmasq.conf /etc/dnsmasq.conf-backup
Note: The "interface" should match the interface that your clients are connected to, and the "dhcp-range" should be within the gateway's private IP subnet you configured according to the "Gateway set up" directions above.
sudo /etc/init.d/dnsmasq start
Now your clients should be able to pull an automatic ip address and resolve host names.
The following section includes a rough outline of some alternative methods for configuring an ICS gateway. They are incomplete and untested. They are included simply for the sake of information.
There are other ways to host ICS, but they are outside the scope of this article.
The ipmasq daemon does NAT routing so you don't have to configure iptables. The following directions are incomplete and should not be considered a full description of what needs to be done to configure ipmasq.
sudo aptitude install ipmasq
Configure ipmasq to allow dhcp requests, otherwise you need to stop ipmasq to make a connection. You need to copy a .rul from the documentation directory into the /etc config and edit the interface name. Then reconfigure ipmasq to start after networking has been started
sudo dpkg-reconfigure ipmasq.
dhcp3 is an easy to configure and scalable true DHCP server that can be configured for many different aplications. dhcp3 configuration is more complex, but it can be useful in many situations:
BIND9 is a popular and well supported local DNS server. It is very versatile, and very powerful, but difficult to configure correctly:
Another approach — set up Firestarter, to run connection sharing, set up dhcp3-server, and set its configuration to listen to the correct eth*. To change this later, run sudo dpkg-reconfigure dhcp3-server.
Basically, you need to have Firestarter active/turned on/protecting, to have the connection shared.
When you install dhcp3-server, it will place a sample config file in your /etc/dhcp3 folder, called dhcpd.conf. I suggest you install dhcp3-server first, and then firestarter, cause if you are lucky, firestarter will set up a new config file for dhcp3 for you.
At any time that changes are made to your dhcpd.conf file, restart the server – sudo /etc/init.d/dhcp3-server restart will do it. Alternatively, every time you run the sudo dpkg-reconfigure dhcp3-server, at the end, your server will restart.
There are several issues that I had…first of all, the Firestarter firewall won't even start if you don't have it configured to listen to the right interface…You can change which one it listens to in Preferences –> Network Settings. The Local network connected device must be the same as you have dhcp3-server listening to, of course, both checkboxes under that need to be checked. The Internet connected network device will be the one that is configured for Internet. Now, I have two NICs, but I have pppoe configured on eth0, and I have Internet connection sharing configured on the same one, cause eth0 is also configured for a static 192.168 internal IP for my internal network.
simple example wlan0 has the internet connection eth0 is being used to share the connection it could be directly with a single pc via a crossover cable or switch or you could have a router with a cable from eth0 to the wan port and a whole lan setup behind this. Interestingly the internet connection could be ppp0 a 3g or mobile Internet modem.
# internet connection sharing wlan0 is the gate way
# eth0 is the lan port this might use a straight ethernet cable to a router wan port or a switch or a single PC
# 192.168.2.2 is the port that is being used by the lan for access I changed it to 192.168.2.254 and set fixed addresses for the wan and router
# change wlan0 to ppp0 and you can use this for mobile broadband connection sharing
ifconfig eth0 up"
ifconfig eth0 192.168.2.1
echo “1” > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o wlan0 -s 192.168.2.0/24 -j MASQUERADE
iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -i wlan0 -p tcp –dport 3074 -j DNAT –to-destination 192.168.2.2
iptables -t nat -A PREROUTING -i wlan0 -p udp -m multiport –dports 88,3074 -j DNAT –to-destination 192.168.2.2
iptables -A FORWARD -i wlan0 -d 192.168.2.2 -p tcp –dport 3074 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A FORWARD -i wlan0 -d 192.168.2.2 -p udp -m multiport –dports 88,3074 -j ACCEPT
You could use the above as a bash script changing things to suit
# rc.flush-iptables – Resets iptables to default values.
# Copyright (C) 2001 Oskar Andreasson <bluefluxATkoffeinDOTnet>
# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.
# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
# GNU General Public License for more details.
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with this program or from the site that you downloaded it
# from; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple
# Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
# reset the default policies in the filter table.
$IPTABLES -P INPUT ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -P FORWARD ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
# reset the default policies in the nat table.
$IPTABLES -t nat -P PREROUTING ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -t nat -P POSTROUTING ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -t nat -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
# reset the default policies in the mangle table.
$IPTABLES -t mangle -P PREROUTING ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -t mangle -P POSTROUTING ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -t mangle -P INPUT ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -t mangle -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
$IPTABLES -t mangle -P FORWARD ACCEPT
# flush all the rules in the filter and nat tables.
$IPTABLES -t nat -F
$IPTABLES -t mangle -F
# erase all chains that's not default in filter and nat table.
$IPTABLES -t nat -X
$IPTABLES -t mangle -X